英日対訳:ウィントン・マルサリス「Marsalis On Music」:第3章「スーザからサッチモへ:吹奏楽とジャズ」

CHAPTER 3 From Sousa to Satchmo: The WIND BAND and The JAZZ BAND 

 第3章  スーザからサッチモへ:吹奏楽とジャズバンド 









John Philip Sousa's “The Stars and Stripes Forever!” is a march, composed to be performed by a wind band. A MARCH is mainly a composition for the organized steps of military troops marching in formation. But you also can write a march to celebrate an important occasion or a place that you liked, or to inspire patriotic feelings. If you feel bad about where you're from, you listen to a march, and you say, “Yes, okay, I'm from the United States,” or wherever you're from. It's very seldom that we hear a good march today ― or a bad one, for that matter ― and we only hear a wind band at a football game, an occasional parade or two, or a school concert where our relatives or friends are playing in the school band (CD TRACK 58). 

ジョン・フィリップ・スーザ作曲の行進曲「星条旗よ永遠なれ」。吹奏楽の為に書かれた作品だ。アメリカでは、行進曲と言えば、主に兵隊さん達が隊列を組んで足並みをそろえて行進する為の作品だったりするよね。でもそれだけではなくて、大きな出来事や心に残った場所を記念したり、愛国心をかき立てたりするためにも、行進曲が作られることがある。自分の母国に誇りが持てなくなったら、行進曲を聴いて、「よし、そうだ、僕はアメリカ人なんだ」とかね。最近は上手な行進曲の演奏というものを聞かなくなった - ということは、ひどい演奏というものもなくなったのかもね - 吹奏楽を聴く機会と言うと、フットボールの試合とか、たまに一度、二度と開かれるパレード、あるいは親戚や友達が出演しているから、といって聴きに行く学校のバンドコンサート、くらいかな(CD58曲目)。 


A wind band is called a wind band because there are no stringed instruments, only percussion and air-blown instruments. It has a brass section, which is trumpets, trombones, tuba, and French horns; a woodwind section, which is oboes, bassoons, saxophones, clarinets and flutes; and a percussion section, which is snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, and all kinds of other little triangles and things that play up high. 



Right after the Civil War the wind band became popular in the Northeast, and by the turn of the twentieth century towns all over the United States had bands of various sizes that played for picnics, churches, athletic contests, dances, political rallies, even those medicine shows, where they would sell things like bear grease to cure rheumatism ― and it never worked. The typical wind band played a wide variety of music, from church hymns to operatic overtures and minstrel songs, and of course they played marches. 



In 1892 John Philip Sousa organized and conducted the most famous wind band in the United States of America, simply named Sousa's Band. They toured the country and the world for about forty years. And even though Sousa's band played a wide range of music, he is most remembered for composing marches that infused the traditional European style with an American optimism. In this chapter we're going to see how the wind band is related to the jazz band, specifically its contributions to the earliest jazz in New Orleans, Louisiana, my hometown. 










JOHN PHILIP SOUSA was born on November 6, 1854, in Washington, D. C. when Franklin Pierce was president. His father, who was an immigrant from Portugal, earned his living as a trombonist in the U. S. Marine Corps Band. Young Philip, who grew up with one older sister and six younger brothers and sisters, studied the violin with a neighborhood teacher. He attended the public schools until he was thirteen, when he tried to run away to join the circus as a musician. But his father put a stop to that and enlisted him instead as an apprentice in the Marine Band. Here Philip served for seven years, continuing to study the violin and beginning to compose his first works, dances and marches for the piano. 



After he was discharged from the marines, Sousa moved to Philadelphia and played in theater orchestras, and began a career as a conductor and composer of musical comedies. In 1880 he was on tour in St. Louis with his own first show, Our Flirtations, when he unexpectedly got a telegram offering him the directorship of the Marine Band. His father had suggested him as successor to the retiring director. Sousa moved back to Washington, rejoined the marines, and lived there for the next twelve years, enlarging and reorganizing the band into an almost-fifty-member precision ensemble that began to attract large audiences. He also began to modernize the group's repertory, weeding out the old Civil War-era tunes and supplying new marches and arrangements of his own. Many of his Marine Band marches became amazing popular and sold hundreds of thousands of copies, and some of these are still well-known today: “Semper fidelio” (1888) (the Latin motto of the Marine Corps, “Ever faithful”), “The Thunderer” (1889), and “The Washington Post” (1889), composed to honor the newspaper of that name). 



To learn more about John Philip Sousa, turn to page 152. 







Ragtime, Raggin', and Syncopation 






Before we get into an actual discussion of jazz, we must first visit RAGTIME music. Ragtime was piano music born in the Midwest. It was a bridge between the music of the wind bands and early jazz, which was born in the South. Ragtime's greatest composer, Scott Joplin, became famous throughout the world for rags such as “The Maple Leaf Rag.” 



Ragtime developed from an improvised music style called RAGGIN', which means to make a melody ragged by changing its notes and its rhythms. Raggin' was an American version of African musical stylings that feature syncopations. Syncopation, if you recall from Chapter 1, is accenting unexpected beats. This syncopated raggin' was applied to all types of songs to make them more fun. We all know what raggin' is because we sometimes do it with words when we plead for our favorite food. “Please may I have a pizza? May I have a pizza, please? Ple, ple, ple, please may I have a pizza?” That is raggin' on a request for a pizza. We change the order of the words and their emphasis, we add new words, we break words up and make them jagged to make our request more successful. 



Ragtime music is what happened when composers applied raggin' to marches and other types of more complex written music. You have to remember that this was before the advent of radio, let alone television and all these videos and stuff that we look at today. The center of family entertainment in the home was the parlor piano; that is, if you had enough money to buy one. If you were old enough, you might hear a rag played in a tavern or other public place. 



Ragtime music was perfect for every home's new piano if somebody could play it. And if not, the rag sounded good on a player piano; that's a piano that plays itself with the aid of a piano roll. 



The key to ragtime's success was the joyous optimism of its syncopation and the danceability of its beat. Everybody likes to dance. Ragtime became the most popular musical art of America for about twenty-five years, and was eventually arranged for all types of musical ensembles. 











SCOTT JOPLIN was born near Marshall, in eastern Texas, on November 24, 1868, when Andrew Johnson was president. His father, a tenant farmer and later a railroad laborer in Texarkana, had been born a slave but was emancipated by his owner before the Civil War started in 1861. His mother was a freeborn American from Kentucky, He grew up in Texarkana with one brother eight years older than himself and four younger brothers and sisters. Most of the young Joplins showed musical ability. Scott played the banjo, mandolin, guitar, and piano, and he also sang. When he was sixteen, he formed a traveling singing group with two of his younger brothers called the Texas Medley Quartette, and he also earned money as a pianist playing for local events. 



When he was twenty, Joplin began a life as a traveling solo musician throughout the Midwest, living and working in St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, Louisville, and other cities. In 1895-96 he began to tour again with the Texas Medley Quartette, traveling as far as east Syracuse, New York, where he published his first music: two songs. In 1897 he settled in Sedalia, Missouri, as a teacher and a ragtime pianist at the Maple Leaf Club and other saloons. Joplin also studied music at George R. Smith College, where he took advanced harmony and composition courses. He joined the twelve-member Sedalia Queen City Concert Band as a cornetist, and made ragtime ― syncopated ― arrangements of popular marches and dances for them. He searched around Missouri for a publisher for his new “Maple Leaf Rag” (1899), and finally made a deal right in Sedalia with John Stark. The firm of John Stark & Son would eventually published almost twenty of his piano rags, and Joplin became known in Sedalia as the “king of ragtime.” 



To learn more about Scott Joplin, turn to page 154. 






Ragtime changed the sound of traditional marches. First, the syncopation we've been talking about. This is a phrase without syncopation (SCORE ILLUS. 10, CD TRACK 59). Now the same phrase, syncopated (SCORE ILLUS. 11, CD TRACK 60). In the unsyncopated phrase the accents fall on beats one and three. In the syncopated phrase the accents fall on beats two and four. 



Second, ragtime melodies cover a much wider range than traditional march melodies. If you look at these scores as if they were graphs, you can see that the ragtime melodies cover much more musical space (SCORE ILLUS. 12 AND 13). 



Third, rags use BROKEN CHORDS. Now, what is a broken chord? Remember, in Chapter 2 we said that a chord is a group of tones sounded together. A broken chord introduces the tones individually. In the score it looks like this: together (SCORE ILLUS. 14, CD TRACK 61); broken (SCORE ILLUS. 15, CD TRACK 62). 



Fourth, rags feature a percussive style that imitates the banjo. Ragtime appropriated the sound of the banjo being picked and gave it to the piano to play. 





What Rags and Marches Have in Common 






Here are some similarities between rags and marches. Frist would be the two-beat feel. That's what gives the march the oom-pah, oom-pah, oom-pha sound. It is the same in ragtime (CD TRACK 63). 



Then we have sixteen-bar strains, which are repeated. We can count the bars in both Sousa's march “Manhattan Beach” and Joplin's “Maple Leaf Rag” the same way we counted bars in the thirty-two-bar song form and the blues. 



Both marches and rag also feature a middle strain, called the TRIO, which has a gentler quality, softer, relaxed, and is in another key. It is called a trio because it is derived from a traditional light dance movement for two high parts and one low part. Eventually the three-part format was abandoned, but lighter, more melodious character was retained. This gives us some relief from the more assertive qualities of the rest of the march or rag. And it also serves to give the last strains of the march or rag more bite, because of the contrast, like shouting after whispering. 



Also, every note of ragtime music and marches was written down, not improvised. Listen again to Sousa's “The Stars and Stripes Forever!” and Joplin's “Maple Leaf Rag,” and check out how the same musical elements are used to communicate different but related ideas (CD TRACKS 58 AND 64). 











Raggin', ragtime, and the Sousa style of wind band playing all met in New Orleans sometime around 1895 to form a style that we call jazz. New Orleans had a unique mixture of people from all over the world ― French, Spanish, many different types of Africans and Americans, Creoles, and Native Americans. What distinguished New Orleans from other American cities at that time was the integration of these diverse groups. They shared neighborhoods, culture, and public life. This produced a uniquely American type of musician who was influenced by American versions of European and African styles, the jazz musician. 



Jazz musicians strive to sound personal, to sound like themselves, and to be identified as such. They IMPROVISE melodies and play with rhythms. Improvisation means spontaneous musical invention. It's just like when we talk. We invent what we're going to say right in the moment, and we try to organize our thoughts as we go along. The jazz musician does this same thing, but with notes. 



Jazz musicians will come up with little signature things, sounds that only they can make. Like bending notes a certain way, imitating animal sounds, or just a general feeling that that musician alone can convey because if comes from his or her personality. 



Then ― and this is an important part of New Orleans jazz ― the jazz musicians want to converse with each other in the language of music. This means the musicians have to listen, interact, and play at the same time. In jazz you have to be prepared to change a musical idea quickly, you have to have good manners. That means don't play too loud, and don't play so much that you get in other people's way. 

それから - というか、これこそニューオーリンズジャズのポイント - ジャズミュージシャン達は「音楽」という「言葉」で会話をしようとする。つまり、聴いて、意思を交わして、演奏する、を、いっぺんにやるってことだ。ジャズでは、いつでも演奏内容の変化に対応できる準備が必要だし、マナーを守らなくてはいけない。音がデカすぎたり、自分ばかり演奏しまくったりして、他人の邪魔をするな、ということだ。 


Even though the music sounds very different, the jazz band is organized in the same way as the John Philip Sousa band. Let's take apart the traditional march “High Society” and see how the wind band and the jazz band relate to each other. We'll start at the bottom. In the Sousa-style wind band the bass drum generally plays with the cymbals on beats one and three (CD TRACK 65). 



Whereas in the jazz band the bass drum plays on one and three, and the cymbal is played with a wire beater on two and four. Now the catch is that the bass drum accents every second fourth beat. It sounds very complicated, but when you listen to it, it'll make a lot of sense. What the bass drum and the cymbal are actually doing is engaging in an improvised conversation (CD TRACK 66). 



Next is the snare drum. In the Sousa-style march the snare drum plays some type of written pattern that is repeated to form what we call a CADENCE (CD TRACK 67). 



Whereas in the jazz band the snare drum improvises different cadences that are syncopated and that converse with the bass drum and with the cymbal (CD TRACK 68). 



In the wind band the tuba, or Sousaphone, accents one and three to make that oom-pah, oom-pah, oom-pah, oom-pah, oom. See, they're the “oom” of the oom-pah sound that characterizes the march (CD TRACK 69). 



In the jazz band the tuba syncopates with a skipping type of effect and converse with the other instruments (CD TRACK 70). 



The first trumpet in the wind band almost always plays the melody, while the second and third trumpets reinforce the melody with harmony. Actually, in Sousa's day musicians played the cornet, but the technique is pretty much the same as the trumpet. The cornet has a softer, more mellow sound: the trumpet is cuter, though. Sometimes the second and third trumpets play a part that reinforces the rhythm. It sounds like a drum part but is played on the trumpet (CD TRACK 71). 



In jazz trumpet is the lead instrument. The first trumpet always plays the melody and the second trumpet will improvise a little harmonization around that melody. As with other instruments in jazz, it's important for you to listen to how we interpret the rhythms a different way and carry on a musical conversation. The musicians talk with each other in jazz. That's what we do. 



In the wind band the clarinets, flutes, and piccolos can play the main melody in a higher register. Or they can embellish the melody with a fancy high part (CD TRACK 72). 



In jazz music the clarinet does the same thing; either reinforce the melody or improvise a high fancy part (CD TRACK 73). 



The trombones in the wind band play a lower, slower melody called a COUNTERMELODY. It is called a countermelody because it works with the original melody but is distinguished by its different character (CD TRACK 74). 



Or the trombones can play a rhythm part. Actually, it's some version of the “pah” of oom-pah, oom-pah, oom-pah, oom-pha (CD TRACK 75). 



In the jazz band the trombone plays a sliding or growling version of that low countermelody. Now, it's up to the trombonist to choose how to interpret his part, and it's very important that whatever he plays works with all of the other improvised parts (CD TRACK 76). 




The jazz band doesn't include the bassoon, oboe, French horn, or flute, in most cases. But no matter the instrumentation or size of the band, whether it's the wind band or the jazz band, all of the instruments are divided to perform two basic functions. One is to play the melody or a countermelody, and number two is to give some interpretation of the rhythm part. Listen for these things in  a performance of “High Society” done in the style of New Orleans jazz (CD TRACK 77). 



What is it that make New Orleans jazz so distinctive or sound so complex? We could say improvisation, but there was a tradition of improvisation in Baroque music, which was written some 250 or so years ago. And many kinds of music still use improvisation, like bluegrass, salsa, Indian ragas, and so on ― many kinds. It's COLLECTIVE improvisation that distinguishes New Orleans jazz from all other music. All of the musicians improvise together. We have a collective conversation. This means that it's important to understand what everyone else is doing so that you can cooperate. Improvisation does not mean you just play whatever you want. It means you have the choice to create something and make it fit with what other musicians are improvising. 



Here are some of the techniques of group improvisation. A GROOVE. Well, a groove is the coordination of different rhythms. A lot of what we hear today has a beat. But don't confuse a beat with a groove, because a beat is only one moment in the life of a groove. 



See, a beat is the same thing repeated over and over and over again, with almost no change. Now, the rhythms of a groove are always changing. This gives the jazz drummer musical freedom of choice, and in New Orleans jazz all of the improvised rhythms lay off of that second fourth beat that we talked about a little earlier (CD TRACKS 78 AND 79). 



When more than one melody is played at a time, we call that POLYPHONY. This is confusing to us because we're used to hearing only one melody at a time. Our ear doesn't really know what to pay attention to. It's like trying to listen to two or three conversations at once. Well, if that happens with the band, just make sure you listen to the noble trumpets in the back (CD TRACK 80). But unlike the confusion of overlapping conversations, polyphony can make music more interesting. 



If we learn to hear REGISTERS, the polyphony becomes much easier to identify. Registers are just like altitudes. You know it's possible for planes to fly above and below each other, with enough distance in between for safety, of course. So they can leave New York together and arrive in Boston at the same time. This is how polyphony in the wind band and the jazz band generally works. All of the instruments occupy different registers (they play higher or lower than one another) and begin and end at the same time without getting in each other's way. If we listen to the famous piccolo strain from “Stars and Stripes,” we'll hear an example of polyphony. 



When we do this, we will certainly notice the piccolos, trumpets, and other instruments playing the main melody. But what about the trombones? They are playing a low countermelody (CD TRACK 81). 



That's the effect of polyphony. It's just hard to sort out all of those instruments playing distinctly different melodies at the same time. The example of the planes leaving New York and flying to Boston at the same time but at different altitudes gives us a picture of how the instruments in the band play in different registers. We have our piccolos way up at 30,000 feet, then the flute at 25,000. Now we have the clarinet, the trumpet, and the saxophone between 20,000 and 15,000 feet. The trombone generally slides around at 10,000 feet. You've got to watch those trombones, they're tricky. 



Generally, in jazz polyphony the clarinet plays in the high register, and also plays faster notes (CD TRACK 82). 



The trumpet generally playes in the middle register and middle rhythm notes (CD TRACK 83). 



And the trombone plays in the lower register and slower, longer notes (CD TRACK 84). 



In order for this to work, it's important for the musicians to coordinate the rhythms and the registers. That's what is required for a successful performance of New Orleans three-part polyphony on “Stars and Stripes” (CD TRACK 85). 



TAILGATING is the sliding style of trombone play. It's an important spice in New Orleans jazz, but it can be overdone to make the music sound like a joke or make it sound corny. But the reason they call it tailgating is because a long time ago musicians used to get on the back of a wagon and drive through the city to advertise different events. The trombone player couldn't be in the front or the middle of the wagon because he would slide the trombone into the other musicians. So they would make him hang the slide out the back of the wagon. And the back of a wagon is also called a tailgate (CD TRACK 86). 



The most common way that musicians converse in jazz is called call and response. We talked about this in Chapter 2 in relation to chorus format. Actually, we all know call and response because this is how we talk every day. Like if I say, “Did you copy off of my paper?” And you say, “What? Why would I copy off of your sad paper?” And then I say,”Let me see your paper, I think you have the same answers as me.” And you say, “We might have the same answers, if you copied off of me. Anyway, why would I copy off of you? You failed every test this year.” That's call and response, like the rhythm of “Shave and a hair cut, two bits.” But in jazz our call and response goes on between instruments, and it can take place at any time (CD TRACK 87). 



When musicians play a repeated phrase, this is called a riff (we also learned about riff in Chapter 2). A riff reinforces the groove. It is kind of like a road sign. You know, when you're traveling somewhere, you see “Minneapolis 150 miles,” “Minneapolis 100 miles,” “Minneapolis 50 miles” ― you get closer and closer to Minneapolis, and the road sign appears at regular intervals to let you know that. If you drive for a long time without seeing a road sign, you start feeling anxious because you may be lost. Like a road sign, a riff appears at regular intervals to reassure you and let you know where you are (CD TRACK 88). 



At certain times in the performance of a piece of jazz the entire band will stop, and one musician will have a short solo spot before the band comes back in. This is called a BREAK. And a break is just like ― have you ever been to the circus and seen a trapeze act? That's where two people swing on trapeze bars ― they're the catchers ― and a third person, the flier, goes back and forth between them doing somersaults, spins, and other tricky maneuvers in midair. Well, that's what a musical break is like. The break is the moment when the flier does the tricky moves in midair  



First you swing with the group, then you fly off on your own, or “solo,” as it's called, and then you swing with the group again on the other side of the break. Actually, you want to keep the feeling of the group's swing all through the break. If you don't maintain a strong sense of swing, you won't be able to find your place after the break. It's just like in a trapeze act. If the flier and the catchers don't stay in sync, the flier will fall ― and hope for a safety net. When a soloist takes a daredevil leap in the break and then swings right into place with the rest of the group, that gives jazz music a tremendous edge of excitement and fun (CD TRACK 89). 



A single performance of a New Orleans standard like “The Whoopin' Blues” can include grooves, breaks, polyphonic playing, riffs, a trombone tailgating, and call and response (CD TRACK 90). 











LOUIS ARMSTRONG had not one but two famous nicknames. Some people referred to him as Satchmo, short for Satchel Mouth, because he had such large and strong lips that they said his mouth looked like a satchel. Musicians were more likely to call him Pops, as a sign of respect for his lasting influence on the world of music. 



Armstrong was born on August 4, 1901, in Jane Alley, one of the toughest areas of New Orleans, Louisiana. He grew up poor, but surrounded by great musicians. Jazz had been invented in New Orleans just a few years before he was born by the legendary cornetist Buddy Bolden, and Armstrong often said, “Jazz and I grew up together.” Although Armstrong never heard Bolden, the spirit of Bolden was being carried on by musicians like Bunk Johnson, Buddy Petit, Freddie Keppard, and Armstrong's mentor, Joe Oliver. 



Armstrong was arrested in his early teens for firing a cap pistol in celebration of the Fourth of July. That prove to be providential, because in the segregated boy's home to which he was sent he was taught to play the cornet by Professor Peter Davis. Possessing a great talent for music, Armstrong graduated rapidly from being the bass drummer in the school band to first bugler and cornetist. 



On leaving the boy's home in his late teens, Armstrong took up the life of a musician. He played in bands in parades and clubs, and on the steamboats that made excursions and longer journey north of New Orleans on the Mississippi River. At that time the city was defined by the new music of jazz and was home to many great musicians. Armstrong learned his art from the older musicians and soon became respected as their equal. He was the best student of the great cornetist and trumpeter Joe Oliver, and played second cornet in his mentor's famous band, King Oliver7s Creole Band. 



To learn more about Louis Armstrong, turn to page 155. 






The most popular part of a wind band concert was the performance of a cornet soloist. Men like Jules Levy, Herbert L. Clark, and Matthew Arbuckle became famous for displays of impossible technical virtuosity. Things like double and triple tonguing and high notes that made the trumpet sound like a violin or two or three horns at one time. Now these were men with unique sounds, individualistic ― and sometimes bombastic ― personalities. As a matter of fact, in one concert, billed as a battle of cornetists, Matthew Arbuckle and Jules Levy stopped blowing their horns and literally came to blows. Pugilism aside, their techniques established the foundations of trumpet playing still in use today. 

かつては、吹奏楽のコンサートで最も人気があったのは、コルネット奏者のソロ演奏だった。ジュール・レヴィ、ハーバード・L・クラーク、そしてマシュー・オーバクルといった奏者達が、超絶技巧を披露して有名になっていった。例えば、ダブルタンギングやトリプルタンギング、バイオリン並みのハイトーン、楽器を二つ三つといっぺんに口に当てて吹いたりとかね。こういった人達は、独自のサウンドを持ち、性格も独特な、時に発言もスケールのデカい人物だったんだ。実際に在った話なんだけれど、「コルネット奏者 名人対決」と銘打ったコンサートが開かれた。出演した二人であるマシュー・オーバクルとジュール・レヴィは、楽器を「吹く」のを途中でやめてしまい、何と文字通り相手をパンチで「吹っ飛ばし合って」しまったんだって!「吹っ飛ばし合い」のことはともかく、こういった名人達が駆使した技術は、トランペットの奏法を確立して、それは今でも使われているんだ。 


The originator of jazz was Buddy Bolden. Well, at least that's what folks say. Buddy Bolden was a cornet soloist in the tradition of Jules Levy and Matthew Arbuckle. His virtuosity, however, was in the personality of his sound, the mastery of vocal effects like crying, laughing, and moaning, and the ability to create memorable phrases while also syncopating with style. They say he could play so loud that he could make the rain actually stay up in the sky. 



Unfortunately, we don't have any recordings of Buddy Bolden, but we do of Louis Armstrong, who played trumpet in that same tradition. Louis Armstrong was the first great soloist on record. He improvised full solos with related phrases strung together. The hardest thing in playing a long solo is sticking to the point. It's just like when you're talking. You know, the longer you talk, the more you have a tendency to just ramble on and on. Louis Armstrong is the model for jazz trumpeting. He had a round sound, he played with tremendous fire and imagination, and his solos are so logical that though improvised, they seem to be written down. We can hear all of these qualities in a performance of Armstrong's composition entitled “Cornet Chop Suey” (CD TRACK 91). 



In this chapter we've seen how the tradition of wind band playing influenced New Orleans jazz. I hope this shows you how things that may seem different at first can actually be quite similar when you take a closer look. To illustrate this, the CD in this book includes an unprecedented joint performance by wind and jazz bands of Sousa's “Manhattan Beach” (CD TRACK 92).