ヴォーン・ウィリアムズ「National Music」(1934)第2章(2/2)音楽の起源についての仮説





音楽の起源についての仮説 (2/2)



I cannot see why it should not be equally natural to presuppose an aptitude for singing in the natural man as an aptitude for speaking; indeed, singing of a primitive kind may be supposed to come before speaking, just as emotion is something more primitive than thought, and the indeterminate howls which travellers tell us savages make to accompany dances or ceremonies in which they are emotionally excited may be supposed to be the beginnings of music. However, the difference between real music and mere sound depends on the fact of definitely sustained notes with definite relations to each other. Some people hold that this definition of sounds can only have arisen after the invention of the pipe or some other primitive musical instrument; but I shall be able to give you personal evidence to the contrary. I have no doubt myself that song is the beginning of music and that purely instrumental music is a later development. Song, then, I believe, is nothing less than speech charged with emotion. The German words sagen and singen were in early times interchangeable and to this day a country singer will speak of "telling" you a song, not of singing it. Indeed the folk-singer (of course I am speaking of England only, the only place of which I have personal knowledge), the English folk-singer, seems unable to dissociate words and tune: if he has forgotten the words of a song he is very seldom able to hum you the tune and if you in your turn were to sing the words he knew to a different tune he would be satisfied that you knew the song, and I believe the same is true of dance tunes. A country musician, so Cecil Sharp relates, took it for granted that when his hearers had got the tune of a dance they would be able to perform the dance as well. 




The personal evidence I will give you is as follows. I was once listening to an open air preacher. He started his sermon in a speaking voice, but as he grew more excited the sounds gradually became defined, first one definite note, then two, and finally a little group of five notes. 




The notes being a, b, a, g, a, with an occasional drop down to e.  

[Illustration: musical notation] 






It seemed that I had witnessed the change from speech to song in actual process. The increased emotional excitement had produced two results, definition and the desire for a decorative pattern. Perhaps I went too far in calling this song, perhaps I should call it the raw material of song. I will now give you examples of actual folk-songs built on this very group of three notes.  



(1) "Down in yon forest" (1st phrase)  

[Illustration: musical notation]  

譜例1 「Down in yon forest」(最初のフレーズ) 





(2) "Bushes and Briars" (1st phrase)  

[Illustration: musical notation] 

譜例2 「Bushes and Briars」(最初のフレーズ) 





These are what we call the stock phrases of folk-song which play an important part in folk-music just as the stock verbal phrase plays an important part in ballad poetry. There is a good practical reason for these stock phrases. Any of you who are writers, whether you are writing a magazine article or a symphony, know that the great difficulty is how to start, and the stock phrase solved this difficulty with the ballad makerso nine out of ten ballads start with some common phrase such as "As I walked out" or "It is of a" or "Come all you" and so on. In the same way we find a common opening to many folk-tunes, and this opening would naturally be a variant of some musical formula which comes naturally to the human voice. Now let us examine this little phrase again. Can not we suppose that our reciter in still greater moments of excitement will feel inclined to add to and embellish his little group of notes? Embellishment, we all know, is a natural consequence of heightened emotion, and it is a good criterion of the more ornamental phrases in a composer's work to make up our minds whether they are the result of an emotional impulse or whether they are meaningless ornament. Take, for example, the cadenza-like passages in the slow movement of Brahms' Clarinet Quintet and compare them with the flourishes, say, in a Vieuxtemps Concerto, or take the melismata charged with feeling of which Bach was so fond and compare them with the meaningless coloratura of his contemporary Italian opera composers. 

これがいわゆる、民謡の「フレーズのネタ」である。民謡の世界では重要な役割を持っている。これは、物語詩(バラード)を書くのに「言葉のネタ」が重要な役割を果たすのと同じだ。この「フレーズのネタ」には、ちゃんと実用的な目的がある。本書をお読みの方の中で、書くことを生業とされている方、雑誌の記事にせよ、交響曲にせよ、その出だしに何を書くかが、非常に大変だ。「フレーズのネタ」があれば、物語詩(バラード)を書く方にとっては、この「非常に大変」を解決できる。物語詩(バラード)というものは、9割が、何かしら常套句から始まってる。例えば「As I walked out」(我、歩み出ぬとするに当り)「It is of a」(この物語は)「Come all you」(さあさ皆さん、寄っといで)等々。同じ様に、多くの民謡の出だしを見てみると、人間が声を出して話す際に自然と最初に口をつくような形を、音楽形式に変化させたものが、自然と用いられているとが多い。そこで、この短いフレーズを検証してみよう。今の時代の歌い手は、大いに興に乗ってくると、「◯つの音のグループ」に装飾のパターンを施したいという気持ちが、湧いてくる傾向にあると言えるだろうか?皆さん御存知の通り、装飾音形とは、感情の高まりの結果として自ずと生まれてくるものだ。そして、作品の善し悪しを図る良いものさしをご紹介しよう。ある作曲家の作品に、沢山装飾音形が出てきたら、次のどちらかを判断するのだ。これは「感情の刺激受けてのもの」か、はたまた、「意味のない付け足し」か。例えばブラームスの「クラリネット四重奏曲」の、緩徐楽章に出てくるカデンツァのパッセージを見てみよう。これと比べるのは、ブリュッセル音楽院長の作曲家アンリ・ヴュータンが書いた「バイオリン協奏曲」の装飾楽句だ。それとも、バッハが好んで感情が高まると思われる際に使ったメリスマ(1音節に多数の音符を当てる装飾的声楽様式)と、彼と同じ時代のイタリアのオペラ作曲家達が使った無意味なコロラトゥーラ(主に高音域の装飾的声楽様式)とを比べてみてもよいだろう。 



Increased emotional excitement leads to increase of ornament so that our original phrase might eventually grow perhaps into this;  



[Illustration: musical notation] 




which is as a matter of fact an actual phrase out of a known folk-song. Here we have what we can call a complete musical phrase. 




The business of the ballad singer is to fit his music to the pattern of a rhymed verse, usually a four-line stanza with some simple scheme of rhyme; so our melodic phrase has somehow to be developed to cover the whole ground. I assume for the sake of simplicity a single invention and will not discuss here the possibility of communal invention. If the singer is pleased with his initial little bit of melody he will feel inclined to repeat it. Repetition is one of the fundamentals of artistic intelligibility. Hubert Parry in his chapter on primitive music gives examples of savage music which consists of nothing else but a simple melodic phrase repeated over and over again. But supposing our ballad singer finds that the verse he has to recite is like the dream of Bottom the weaver in 8's and 6's. The music which he has adapted to the first line will not suit the second so something new will have to grow out of the old to fit the shortened number of syllables. This gives us a new fundamental of musical structure, that of contrast. When he gets to the third line he finds 8 syllables again and to his great delight he finds he can use his first music that had pleased him so once more. Here we have a very primitive example of the formula A.B.A. which in an infinite variety of forms may be said to govern the whole of musical structure, whether we look for it in a simple ballad, in the Ninth Symphony, or in the Prelude to "Tristan." Let us analyse an actual example, "Searching for Lambs," incidentally one of the most beautiful of the English folk-songs. 




The words of the first stanza, which after all will largely determine the form of the music, are as follows:  




"As I went out one May morning  

One May morning betime  

I met a maid from home had strayed  

Just as the sun did shine." 







The tune starts off with the elaborate form of our stock phrase (A). Then comes a short line; so a new phrase has to grow out of the oldrepetition in fact a 3rd higher with a major 3rd this time and an indeterminate ending, for we must not have any feeling of finality yet (B). 




Now for the third line. You might expect a mere repetition of the first. But the third line of the words is not an exact metrical repetition of the first and moreover has a mid-rhyme. So some variety in the music is suggested. We start off with a repetition of line 2 which flows in a free sequence (suggesting by its parallelism the mid-rhyme (C). 




Now for the last line. Here we obviously need some allusion to the beginning to clench the whole. So the sequential phrase is merely carried on, and behold, we have our initial phrase once more complete, growing naturally out of the sequential phrase and, to complete all, 3 notes of Coda added to make up the line (D). 




What a wealth of unconscious art in so simple a tune! All the principles of great art are here exemplified: unity, variety, symmetry, development, continuity.  



"Searching for Lambs"  

[Illustration: musical notation] 

(Printed by permission of Miss Karpeles and Messrs. Novello.) 








I will give you one more example of the growth of a tune from the same root idea. This time the 3rd is major and the embellishing notes are consequently differently placed. 




I need not analyse this tune in detail, but the same principles apply. The song is "The Water is Wide."  



"The Water is Wide"  

[Illustration: musical notation] 

(Printed by permission of Miss Karpeles and Messrs. Novello.)